Mines were laid in zigzags up to one meter apart, and in some parts of the berms, there are three rows of mines. Morocco and organizations such as France Libertés consider Algeria to be directly responsible for any crimes committed on its territory, and accuse the country of having been directly involved in such violations.[56]. In 2003, a new version of the plan was made official, with some additions spelling out the powers of the WSA, making it less reliant on Moroccan devolution. Morocco disputes this number, saying it is exaggerated for political reasons and for attracting more foreign aid. Pour Rabat, la cour ne peut pas reconnaître les liens qui existent entre la monarchie et les sahraouis, et rejeter la souveraineté du Maroc[24]. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams. The Sahrawis are traditionally nomadic Bedouins with a lifestyle very similar to that of the Tuareg Berbers from whom Sahrawis most likely have descended, and they can be found in all surrounding countries. În prezent e un teritoriu disputat între Maroc, cu care se învecinează, și luptătorii pentru independență concentrați în Frontul Polisario, susținuți de Algeria. This has not gone unnoticed on Capitol Hill. Sahara Occidentală este o fostă colonie spaniolă. Norwegen investiert ethisch, Petroleumfonds führt Richtlinien ein / Vorbildrolle erwartet, Andreas Knudsen, Kopenhagen, Neues Deutschland, Berlin, 03.08.05. In the 11th century, the Maqil Arabs (fewer than 200 individuals) settled in Morocco (mainly in the Draa River valley, between the Moulouya River, Tafilalt and Taourirt). Sayad's graffiti depicts aspects of Sahrawi culture and includes actual Sahrawi people as his subjects. La plus grande bande transporteuse du monde (96 km) transporte le phosphate des mines de Boukraa à la côte près de Laâyoune[74]. Marocco si trova in Africa, in GMT+1 fuso orario (con il tempo corrente di: 10:38, il venerdì). [32] His resignation followed several months of failed attempts to get Morocco to enter into formal negotiations on the plan, but he met with rejection. Protesters in Laayoune threw stones at police and set fire to tires and vehicles. Controversa apare într-un moment delicat în relaţiile dintre cele două ţări, în special privind chestiunea Saharei Occidentale, fostă colonie spaniolă, teritoriu slab populat controlat trei sferturi de Rabat, dar revendicat de mişcarea de independenţă Frontul Polisario. Les villes de Laâyoune, Dakhla et Es-Semara disposent d'aéroports les desservant : Deux monnaies sont utilisées, le dirham marocain (dans le cadre du Sahara marocain) et la peseta sahraouie (RASD)[75],[76] monnaie commémorative frappée occasionnellement et non utilisée dans les échanges commerciaux[77]. The festival provides entertainment and educational opportunities for Sahrawi refugees alongside cultural celebrations for visitors and spectators. The reasons for its widespread usage was due to the necessity of communicating with Spanish leadership and administrators throughout the territory, who ultimately established institutions modeled after those of Spain. Formally, Morocco is administered by a bicameral parliament under a constitutional monarchy. Elle considère que le dossier du Sahara occidental relève de la compétence de l'ONU et soutient l'intégrité territoriale des pays arabes[49]. Failed States. [citation needed], While initial Spanish interest in the Sahara was focused on using it as a port for the slave trade, by the 1700s Spain had transitioned economic activity on the Saharan coast towards commercial fishing. Aucune statistique récente de population n'est disponible pour les localités sous contrôle du Polisario. En 1048, des Berbères sanhadjas de l'ouest du Sahara (actuelle Mauritanie) se coalisent sous l'impulsion d'un prédicateur malikite, Abdellah ben Yassin et d'un chef local et fondent le mouvement almoravide. These numbers cover only Sahrawis 'indigenous' to Western Sahara during the Spanish colonial period, not the total number of "ethnic" Sahrawis (i.e., members of Sahrawi tribal groupings), who also extend into Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria. The original clan-/tribe-based society underwent a massive social upheaval in 1975 when the war forced part of the population to settle in the refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria, where they remain. Moneta: MAD, Dirham: Popolazione ; Zona: 273 008 ; 266 000 km ²: Densità demografica: 1 /km²: Prefisso telefonico +212 [telcode.info/eh] ISO3166 Codici: ISO2: EH, ISO3: ESH, num: 732: Codice postale: AC power plug: Sahara Occidentale sulla mappa  WSA* Proseguire sul lato DESTRO . - boicottaggio economico. Dans son avis, la Cour précise : « (...) En revanche, la Cour conclut que les éléments et renseignements portés à sa connaissance n'établissent I'existence d'aucun lien de souveraineté territoriale entre le territoire du Sahara occidental d'une part, le Royaume du Maroc ou l'ensemble mauritanien d'autre part. Selon Alger, en impliquant l'Algérie, le Maroc crée l'illusion que le peuple sahraoui adhère à son projet. [19] During Marinid dynasty rule, the Beni Hassan rebelled but were defeated by the Sultan and escaped beyond the Saguia el-Hamra dry river. [103] The opinion was rendered following an analysis of relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the United Nations General Assembly resolutions, the case law of the International Court of Justice and the practice of sovereign states. Le Maroc obtient les deux tiers nord, et la Mauritanie le tiers sud ; l'Algérie et les Sahraouis ne sont pas consultés. Western Sahara has a hot desert climate, with tropical dry weather all year-round similar to Dubai. According to Baker's draft, tens of thousands of post-annexation immigrants from Morocco proper (viewed by Polisario as settlers but by Morocco as legitimate inhabitants of the area) would be granted the vote in the Sahrawi independence referendum, and the ballot would be split three ways by the inclusion of an unspecified "autonomy", further undermining the independence camp. [111], Throughout the nine decades of Spanish colonial presence, one of the primary spoken languages in Western Sahara came to be Spanish. The few fertile regions today are fed by underground rivers and underground basins. Gestione opzioni cookie Sometimes children return to the same Spanish household year after year while they are still eligible, and forge strong relationships with their host families. Despite the fact that findings remain inconclusive, both Morocco and the Polisario have signed deals with oil and gas exploration companies. Il faudrait donc replacer les revendications marocaines dans un contexte plus large, celui du Grand Maroc revendiqué par le Parti de l'Istiqlal dans les années 1950 et repris par Mohammed V et ses successeurs[34]. The number was highly politically significant due to the expected organization of a referendum on self-determination. Similar phrases in dictionary Afrikaans Italian. Sede legale via San Gregorio, 55 – 20124 Milano C.F. The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 46 states, and was extended membership in the African Union. The European Union fishing agreements with Morocco include Western Sahara. Les principales sources de revenu sont le pastoralisme, la pêche et l'extraction de phosphate, qui représentent plus de 60 % des exportations[69],[1]. Aucun gouvernement ne survivrait à la remise en cause de ce principe. Nov 19, 2014 - #laayoune #aaiun #sahara #westernsahara #africa This area has a very small population, estimated to be approximately 30,000 nomads. Highly renowned Spanish filmmakers and actors, such as Javier Bardem, Penélope Cruz, and Pedro Almodóvar have supported and attended the festival. De plus d'après la monarchie, Alger utiliserait le Polisario pour affaiblir son rival régional, faire diversion sur les questions relatives à ses frontières, s'offrir un accès à l'océan Atlantique via un État sahraoui à son service et enfin exploiter les ressources naturelles du Sahara occidental[24]. Le principal problème concernant le référendum est la composition du corps électoral : selon la FAO, la population du territoire était d'environ 80 000 habitants en 1975. During summertime, daytime temperatures soar to 45°C (113°F) with blazing sunshine, but don't feel so hot in the (usually non-existent) shade because of the very low humidity. Après des contacts officieux, le Maroc a accepté de traiter directement et officiellement avec le Polisario en 2007 en tant qu'un des protagonistes du conflit. À partir de 1514, avec l'avènement de la dynastie marocaine des Saadiens, l'ascendant marocain devient effectif sur le Sahara occidental[8]. Jacob Mundi. [19][20] The Beni Hassan then were at constant war with the Lamtuna nomadic Berbers of the Sahara. Occupied by Spain until 1975, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand. déclare : « Ce n'est pas seulement le roi qui dicte sa décision (sur le Sahara occidental), c'est aussi l'expression d'un sentiment populaire très profond. [11] In both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn back and forth, depending on the development of relations with Morocco. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition, especially from African, Asian, and Latin American states in the developing world. [122] His canvases, much like MESA, are walls that have been ruined by massive floods in the Sahrawi refugee camps in southwestern Algeria. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Selon Khalil Ahmed, observateur des droits de l'Homme pour la République arabe sahraouie démocratique : « Le référendum est un moyen reconnu de résolution des conflits liés à la décolonisation. Baker resigned his post at the United Nations in 2004; his term did not see the crisis resolved. [119] At this event, actors, directors, and film industry insiders from around the world join the Sahrawi people for a week-long festival of screenings, parallel activities, and concerts. 1 Egipt este o țară transcontinentală în Africa de Nord și Asia de Vest. En 1963, le Sahara occidental a été inscrit, à la demande du Maroc[39],[40], sur la liste des territoires non autonomes selon l'ONU, alors qu'il était encore une colonie espagnole. Capital. The stalemating of the Moroccan proposal options has led the UN in the recent "Report of the UN Secretary-General" to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution. On 18 December 2019, the Comoros became the first nation to open a consulate in Laayoune in support of Moroccan claims to Western Sahara. [116] Furthermore, Sahrawi women were endowed with major responsibility for the camp during long periods of absence by the men of the camp due to war or trade. There was a global trend towards complete decolonization. [95][failed verification], UN sponsored peace talks, the first in six years between Morocco and Polisario, were held in Geneva on 5 December 2018, with both sides agreeing to meet again in a few months for further talks.[96][97]. The portion not under the control of the Moroccan government is the area that lies between the border wall and the actual border with Algeria (for map see Minurso map). Paris et Washington sont d'ailleurs très sensibles à cet argument de stabilité[24]. Toutefois, l'opération conjointe franco-espagnole – dite en français opération « Écouvillon » – met en échec les irréguliers marocains de l'Armée de libération nationale au Sahara occidental, les forçant à évacuer les villes d'Edchera, Tafurdat et Es-Semara, qu'ils contrôlaient[9]. The Atlas mountains show a range of climatic conditions through humid temperate on their lower slopes to Alpine at their highest elevation. Polisario leaders maintain that they are ideologically opposed to terrorism, and insist that collective punishment and forced disappearances among Sahrawi civilians[54] should be considered state terrorism on the part of Morocco. S. Makariou, G. Martinez-Gros et D. Soulié. [19] Towards the end of the Almohad Caliphate, the Beni Hassan, a sub-tribe of the Maqil, were called by the local ruler of the Sous to quell a rebellion; they settled in the Sous Ksours and controlled such cities as Taroudant. Celui-ci est un mouvement dont l'objectif est l'indépendance totale du Sahara occidental, revendication soutenue par l'Algérie[3]. Celle-ci essaie alors, en ordre dispersé de convaincre l'Espagne de décoloniser ce territoire ainsi que Cap Juby et l'enclave d'Ifni, et de négocier pour cela avec le Maroc. Les tribus locales luttent contre la puissance coloniale avec l'aide du sultan marocain. Chestiunea Saharei Occidentale. Orthography: Aoudaghost - Awdaghost - Awdaghust; Araouane - Araouane - Arawan; Ouadane - Ouadane - Wadan; Oualata - Oualata - Walata; Ouargla - Wargla - Wargala Meanwhile, Polisario still insisted on a referendum with independence as a clear option, without offering a solution to the problem of who is qualified to be registered to participate in it. Ceea ce ar fi extrem de grav. The project was presented to the UN Security Council in mid-April 2007. Polisario accepted this voter list, as it had done with the previous list presented by the UN (both of them originally based on the Spanish census of 1974), but Morocco refused and, as rejected voter candidates began a mass-appeals procedure, insisted that each application be scrutinized individually. Il s'agirait notamment d'un trafic mené par la mafia italienne[59]. The exiled government of the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is a form of single-party parliamentary and presidential system, but according to its constitution, this will be changed into a multi-party system at the achievement of independence. Over roughly five centuries, through a complex process of acculturation and mixing seen elsewhere in the Maghreb and North Africa, some of the indigenous Berber tribes mixed with the Maqil Arab tribes and formed a culture unique to Morocco and Mauritania. [25] It initiated guerrilla warfare and, in 1979, Mauritania withdrew due to pressure from Polisario, including a bombardment of its capital and other economic targets. Western Sahara is a sparsely-populated area of mostly desert situated on the northwest coast of Africa. De ce fait, les trois voisins du Sahara occidental ne parviennent pas à créer un front commun face à l'Espagne, qui, moyennant concessions (la décolonisation d'Ifni en 1969, conformément à la résolution 2072 de l'ONU), perpétue ainsi sa domination jusqu'à la mort de Franco, en 1975. For the partially recognized state that controls the Free Zone and claims sovereignty over Western Sahara, see, disputed territory in northwestern Africa, Parts of this article (those related to the, Stalling of the referendum and Settlement Plan. Other early inhabitants of Western Sahara may be the Bafour[18] and later the Serer. [98] All of this is done to keep the balance of Western Sahara's finances. The contemporary history of the territory has experienced long-term international presence and occupation that has deeply influenced the cultural practices of the people, such as languages spoken throughout the territory and its institutions. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan government (as its de facto southern province). Many people from parts of Morocco have come to live in the territory, and these latest arrivals are today thought to outnumber the indigenous Western Sahara Sahrawis. Demonstrations and riots by supporters of independence or a referendum broke out in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara in May 2005 and in parts of southern Morocco (notably the town of Assa). L'Algérie, pays membre de l'organisation, ne remet pas pour autant en cause son appartenance à la Ligue arabe, acceptant le principe de compétence de l'ONU sur la question. Gameloft S.r.l. 13111980150 PEC gameloft@legalmail.it R.I. MILANO REA MI-1617042 Capitale Sociale € 96.900 Soggetta all’attività di direzione e di coordinamento di Gameloft S.E. This second draft, commonly known as Baker II, was accepted by the Polisario as a "basis of negotiations" to the surprise of many. For this reason the Capital Executive office desk is designed to support the work of those who seek maximum efficiency and productivity in their daily jobs. Until their conflict is resolved, the African Union has not issued any formal statement about the border separating the sovereign territories of Morocco and the SADR in Western Sahara. Ceci est un appel à l'acceptation par le Maroc d'organiser un référendum d'autodétermination du peuple sahraoui comme il s'y était engagé en 1989[44],[45]. It gradually contained the guerrillas by setting up the extensive sand-berm in the desert (known as the Border Wall or Moroccan Wall) to exclude guerrilla fighters. The Bafour were later replaced or absorbed by Berber-speaking populations, which eventually merged in turn with the migrating Beni Ḥassān Arab tribes. Indeed, shortly after the Houston Agreement (1997), Morocco officially declared that it was "no longer necessary" to include an option of independence on the ballot, offering instead autonomy. Western Sahara Western Sahara is an area on the west coast of North Africa.A former Spanish colony, its governance is disputed between Morocco and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, but most of it is controlled by Morocco. El Ouali Bologna, aggiornamenti regolari >> La repressione della polizia marocchina nel Sahara Occidentale, iniziata il 22 maggio, non accenna a diminuire, Peace Reporter, 08.06.05 Un haut responsable des Affaires étrangères marocaines soulignant que jusque là "le Maroc a fait preuve de retenue" mais "les appels de la Minurso et du secrétaire général de l'ONU (...) sont malheureusement restés vains" et affirmant que l'ONU, la Mauritanie et "d'autres pays impliqués dans le dossier" avaient été prévenus de l'opération[16]. Several buildings, including a TV station, were also set on fire. Moneta: MAD, Dirham: Popolazione ; Zona: 273 008 ; 266 000 km ²: Densità demografica: 1 /km²: Prefisso telefonico +212 [telcode.info/eh] ISO3166 Codici: ISO2: EH, ISO3: ESH, num: 732: Codice postale: AC power plug: Sahara Occidentale sulla mappa  WSA* Proseguire sul lato DESTRO . Le Sahara occidental (arabe : الصحراء الغربية) est un territoire de 266 000 km2 du Nord-Ouest de l'Afrique, bordé par la province marocaine de Tarfaya au nord, l'Algérie au nord-est, la Mauritanie à l'est et au sud, tandis que sa côte ouest donne sur l'Atlantique. e P.I. Major Sahrawi political events, such as Polisario congresses and sessions of the Sahrawi National Council (the SADR parliament in exile) are held in the Free Zone (especially in Tifariti and Bir Lehlou), since it is politically and symbolically important to conduct political affairs on Sahrawi territory. De plus, le Maroc et la Mauritanie, non reconnue par celui-là (certains éléments, à commencer par Allal El Fassi, représentant de l'aile droite du Parti de l'Istiqlal et ministre entre 1961 et 1963, espérant former un Grand Maroc qui inclurait cette dernière), ont aussi des revendications territoriales opposées sur ce territoire. En outre, l'ONU a, à plusieurs reprises, affirmé que la résolution 1514(XV) s'appliquait au Sahara occidental[34]. Spain terminated its presence in Spanish Sahara within three months, repatriating Spanish remains from its cemeteries.[24]. Western Sahara has a hot desert climate, with tropical dry weather all year-round similar to Dubai. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 18 décembre 2020 à 11:17. His father, Hassan II of Morocco, initially supported the referendum idea in principle in 1982, and signed contracts with Polisario and the UN in 1991 and 1997. [99] The cable concluded that the territory is unlikely ever to be of any economic benefit for Morocco, even if offshore oil fields were to be discovered and exploited. Si les sahraouis décident d'être marocains, nous respecterons leur décision, mais seul un référendum d'autodétermination peut régler le problème[35]. The SADR government whose troops also patrol the area have proclaimed a village in the area, Bir Lehlou and Tifariti, as SADR's former and actual temporary factual capitals. [citation needed]. Les réserves de phosphate du Sahara occidental qui sont concentrées autour de Boukraa sont importantes, ainsi selon l'USGS[70], le Maroc (en incluant le Sahara occidental) détient les deuxièmes plus grandes réserves prouvées de phosphate du monde, avec 5 700 milliards de tonnes (Chine : 6 600), et les plus grandes réserves potentielles, avec 21 000 milliards de tonnes (Chine : 13 000). [125] However Sahrawi poets find it difficult to be published, especially by Arabic publishers, due to the political nature of much of their output. En effet 200 routiers ont été bloqués trois semaines à ce poste-frontière par des milices du polisario comprenant quelque 70 hommes armés. Aucun homme politique marocain ne peut hésiter sur la question. Le Maroc conteste ces chiffres, et un ancien membre du Front Polisario parle de 25 000 réfugiés[63]. As personal envoy of the Secretary-General, James Baker visited all sides and produced the document known as the "Baker Plan". الصحراء الغربية (ar)(As-Ṣaḥrā' al-Ġarbiyah) (ar). It was rejected by both sides, although it was initially derived from a Moroccan proposal. Astoria is proud to present the Hollywood, the new espresso machine inspired by the revolutionary influences that invaded American cinemas in the 70s: from Easy Rider to Taxi Driver, it takes us on a journey through the cinematic culture of an iconic decade. Les liens d'allégeance exprimés, à des périodes pré-coloniales, par des chefs sahraouis seraient constitutifs de la nation marocaine comme de l'appartenance du Sahara occidental au Maroc, et il n'existerait pas d'autre source historique de souveraineté.